風疹(三日ばしか)~軽いはしかのようだが、侮れない~

風疹と予防接種

風疹(三日ばしか)ってどんな病気?

ほとんど2~3日で治るが、合併症を起こすことも

「三日ばしか」とも呼ばれるように、はしかに良く似た症状で発疹も全身に出ますが、はしかほど重症にならず、熱も発疹も2~3日で治ります。

原因は風疹ウイルスでくしゃみやせきなどによって飛沫感染(ひまつかんせん)します。

はしかの場合、高熱が出て3~4日したら発疹が出ますが、風疹の場合は発熱と同時に発疹が出てきます。

首や耳の下のリンパ節が腫れるのも特徴です。

軽くすむことが多いのですが、まれに風疹脳炎や関節炎などの合併症を起こすこともあります。

また、妊娠初期にかかると、お腹の中の赤ちゃんが難聴、白内障、心臓病などを伴う先天性風疹症候群(せんてんせいふうしんしょうこうぐん)を発症することがあります。

風疹(三日ばしか)はどんな症状?

風疹(三日ばしか)の主な症状

  • 発熱
  • 発疹

発熱と同時に発疹が。リンパ節の腫れも見られる。
風疹の症状
感染してから2~3週間すると、38度前後の発熱とほぼ同時に小さな赤い発疹が全身に広がります。

リンパ節も腫れるため、首や耳の下にふれると小指の先くらいの大きさのグリグリができているのがわかります。

白目が赤く充血したり、のどが赤くなって痛んだり、軽いせきが出ることもありますが、2~3日すれば熱も下がり、発疹もあとを残さずきれいに消えていきます。

ほとんどの場合、軽くすむことが多いのですが、気をつけたいのがウイルスが脳に入って起こる風疹脳炎です。

意識がぼんやりするような症状が見られたら、すぐに病院に連れて行きましょう。

また、血小板減少性紫斑病、関節炎などの合併症を起こすこともあるので、完治するまでは安静を心がけましょう。




スポンサーリンク

症状がほとんどでないケースも

症状が軽いと熱もほとんど出ず、発疹もごくわずかなため、ウイルスに感染したことに気づかないで終わってしまうこともあります。

これを「不顕性感染」と呼んでいます。

かかったかどうかはっきりしないようなときは医師に相談し、抗体検査を受けるといいでしょう。

風疹(三日ばしか)の治療とケアについて

発疹が消えるまでは家で安静に

熱が高いときには水分補給を十分にします。

赤ちゃんがかかった場合、合併症はほとんどなく、軽くすむことが多いのですが、熱がなくても発疹が消えるまでは外出を控え、家で静かに過ごさせましょう。

発疹は多少かゆみを感じることもありますが、強くかきすぎるとますます赤くなるので、かかせないように注意してください。

風疹ウイルスは感染力が強いので、発疹のあるうちはお友達との接触を避け、保育園などに通っている場合はお休みさせましょう。

妊婦さんと接触させないのもマナーです。
風疹と妊婦さん

予防接種で感染を防ぐことができる

風疹は感染力が強い病気ですから、地域的に流行することもあります。

予防接種は、1才になると受けられるので、2才になるまでに必ずワクチンを接種するようにしましょう。

なお、予防接種を受けた子供からうつる心配はないので、ママが妊娠中でも安心して受けさせてください。





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